Nonstarch Polysaccharides And Dietary Fiber Impact On Your Health
A significant factor affecting gut health and physiology is dietary fiber. In general, dietary fiber is necessary for maintaining normal intestinal function, promoting gastrointestinal health, increasing satiety, and improving animal welfare. In humans, the recommended daily intake of dietary fiber is based on the protective effects of fiber on the development of cardiovascular disease , but the recommended daily intake of dietary fiber for optimal gastrointestinal function hasn’t been determined for humans or domestic animals, including pigs.
Whole grains and grain by-products are routinely fed to livestock, which contain a complex mixture of carbohydrates, but most experiments in the literature use purified sources of fiber. There’s no way to define the specific intestinal responses to natural sources of fiber at the molecular level, and this poses a challenge since the effects can differ depending on the chemical and physical properties of the particular fiber source. Generally, feeding diets containing high fiber concentrations increases mucin production in the gut. It protects the epithelium from luminal insults and disease by acting as a barrier between luminal contents and the absorption system of the intestine.
A previous study showed that fiber sources with a lot of insoluble fiber (i.e. corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles-DDGS, soybean hulls, and wheat straw) increased the number of swine intestine goblet cells and expressed MUCIN 2 (MUC2). Fiber-induced intestinal changes may be caused by cytokines like IL-4 and IL-13, which modulate mucin secretion.
Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) are broken down by enzymes in feeds for food-producing animals. NSP-degrading enzymes improve animal growth, nutrient digestion, and resistance to infectious diseases. Enzymes that degrade NSP aren’t fully understood. In swine fed high-fiber ingredients commonly used in swine diets (DDGS and wheat middlings), mucin expression and intestinal immune profiles were studied. Enteroids were used to examine the effects of fiber-induced cytokines on mucin secretion in vitro, along with a cocktail of NSP-degrading enzymes.
The definition of dietary fiber is plant parts that can’t be digested by humans. Before the early 21st century, only lignin and polysaccharides were considered dietary fiber, but now resistant starch and oligosaccharides are too. In the digestive tract, polysaccharides and lignin are considered dietary fiber if they’re not digested. It’s either physiologically described as “the dietary components that don’t degrade by mammalian enzymes” or chemically described as “non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and lignin”. The metabolism of soluble fiber may be affected by insoluble fiber, like lignin. The short-chain fatty acids produced by fermented insoluble fiber give colonocytes energy. It’s possible to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, colon cancer, and type 2 diabetes by eating whole grains and dietary fiber.
Dietary fiber or roughage is a plant-derived food that can’t be digested by humans. Various dietary fibers have different chemical compositions and can be categorized by solubility, viscosity, and fermentability, which affect how they’re processed. Dietary fiber is made up of two main types: soluble fiber and insoluble fiber, which are in plant-based foods like legumes, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts and seeds. The consumption of regular fiber is generally associated with good health and lowered disease risk. Polysaccharides and other plant components make up dietary fiber, such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignins, chitins (in fungi), pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides.
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